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In , Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few months later, sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while keeping the library assets for himself.

The series of deals left MGM even more heavily in debt. In , movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem. However, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the theaters.

Approached by Louis B. Mayer , Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17, MGM produced more than feature films in its first two years.

Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds.

During this time, in the summer of , Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along Mayer reportedly referred to his boss as "Mr.

Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies, Mayer and Thalberg began at once to create and publicize a host of new stars, among them Greta Garbo , John Gilbert , William Haines , Joan Crawford , and Norma Shearer who followed Thalberg from Universal.

The arrival of talking pictures in —29 gave opportunities to other new stars, many of whom would carry MGM through the s: MGM was one of the first studios to experiment with filming in Technicolor.

In , MGM released The Viking , the first complete Technicolor feature with sound including a synchronized score and sound effects, but no spoken dialogue.

With the arrival of talkies , MGM moved slowly and reluctantly into sound, releasing features like White Shadows in the South Seas with music and sound effects, and Alias Jimmy Valentine with limited dialogue sequences.

Their first full-fledged talkie, the musical The Broadway Melody in , however, was both a box-office success and won the Academy Award as Best Picture of the Year; and brought MGM into the sound era.

MGM, however, was the very last studio to convert to " talkies " with its first all-color, "all-talking" sound feature with dialogue The Rogue Song , a musical.

From then on, MGM regularly produced several films a year in Technicolor with Northwest Passage being one of the most notable.

From to , MGM produced a series of comedy shorts called All Barkie Dogville Comedies , in which trained dogs were dressed up to parody contemporary films and were voiced by actors.

Columbia also created a label called Publix for Paramount music and sold only at Paramount Theaters. MGM produced approximately 50 pictures a year, though it never met its goal of releasing a new motion picture each and every week It was only able to release one feature film every nine days.

A fine reputation was gained for lavish productions that were sophisticated and polished to cater to an urban audience.

Still, as the Great Depression deepened, MGM began to economize by "recycling" existing sets, costumes, and furnishings from yesteryear projects.

This recycling practice never let up once started. In addition, MGM saved money because it was the only one of the big five studios that did not own an off-site movie ranch.

Until the mids, MGM could make a claim its rivals could not: It was the only Hollywood studio that continued to pay dividends during the s.

MGM stars dominated the box office during the s, and the studio was credited for inventing the Hollywood stable of stars system, as well.

Shearer was still a money maker despite screen appearances becoming scarce, and Crawford continued her box-office power until Thalberg, always physically frail, was removed as head of production in Mayer encouraged other staff producers, among them his son-in-law David O.

Selznick, but no one seemed to have the sure touch of Thalberg. As Thalberg fell increasingly ill in , Louis Mayer could now serve as his temporary replacement.

Rumors began circulating that Thalberg was leaving to set up his own independent company; [ citation needed ] his early death in , at age 37, cost MGM dearly.

Within one year, beginning in , Mayer released his five highest-paid actresses from their studio contracts: After a two-year hiatus, Crawford moved to WB, where her career took a dramatic upturn.

Shearer and Garbo never made another film after leaving the lot. Of the five stars, Loy and MacDonald were the only two whom Mayer rehired, in and respectively.

This management-by-committee resulted in MGM losing its momentum, developing few new stars and relying on the safety of sequels and bland material.

Dorothy Parker memorably referred to it as "Metro-Goldwyn-Merde. After , production was cut from 50 pictures a year to a more manageable 25 features per year.

Audiences began drifting to television in the late s. MGM found it difficult to attract them to theaters.

Word came from Nicholas Schenck in New York: Mayer thought he had found this savior in Dore Schary , a writer and producer who had found success at running RKO.

One bright spot was MGM musical pictures, under the aegis of producer Arthur Freed, who was operating what amounted to an independent unit within the studio.

Movie audiences more and more were staying home and watching television. In by coincidence, the year Mayer died , the studio lost money for the first time in its year history.

Initially Joseph Vogel became president and Sol Siegel head of production. By , MGM had released all of its contract players, with many either retiring or moving on to television.

Parade was canceled by ABC in the 2nd quarter of TV production was expect to start with the season and was to include half-hour remakes of or series based on its pictures.

Initial feature film sales focused on selling to the networks. In a landmark event, the film became the first American theatrical fiction film to be shown complete in one evening on prime time television over a major American commercial network.

Story of Michelangelo was telecast by ABC in , but that was a documentary. Beginning in , and lasting until , telecasts of The Wizard of Oz became an annual tradition, drawing huge audiences in homes all over the U.

The studio was all too happy to see Oz become, through television, one of the two or three most famous films MGM has ever made, and one of the few films that nearly everybody in the U.

Today The Wizard of Oz is regularly shown on the Turner -owned channels, no longer just once a year. Gigi was a box-office and critical success which won nine Academy Awards , including Best Picture.

In animation, MGM purchased the rights in to distribute a series of cartoons that starred a character named Flip the Frog , produced by Ub Iwerks.

The first cartoon in this series entitled Fiddlesticks was the first sound cartoon to be produced in two-color Technicolor.

In , Ub Iwerks cancelled the unsuccessful Flip the Frog series and MGM began to distribute its second series of cartoons, starring a character named Willie Whopper , that was also produced by Ub Iwerks.

The Tom and Jerry cartoons won seven Academy Awards between and In , Tex Avery , another Schlesinger alumnus, joined the animation department.

Avery left the studio in , leaving Hanna and Barbera to focus on the popular Tom and Jerry and Droopy series.

In , MGM enjoyed what is quite probably its greatest financial success of later years, with the release of its nearly four-hour Technicolor epic Ben—Hur , a remake of its silent film hit, loosely based on the novel by General Lew Wallace.

Starring Charlton Heston in the title role, the film was critically acclaimed, and won 11 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, a record that held until Titanic matched it in and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King in Tom and Jerry folded in , and the animation department continued with television specials and one feature film, The Phantom Tollbooth.

During this period, MGM fell into a habit that would eventually sink the studio: However, four succeeding big-budget epics — like Ben—Hur , each a remake — failed: The Cinerama film The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm , the first film in Cinerama to actually tell a story, was also a flop.

King of Kings , while a commercial and critical flop at the time, has since come to be regarded as a film classic. The losses caused by these films led to the resignations of Sol Siegel and Joseph Vogel who were replaced by Robert M.

A Space Odyssey In the mids, MGM began to diversify by investing in real estate. As for film-making, that part of the company was quickly and severely downsized under the supervision of James T.

In , it was announced that MGM was in talks with 20th Century Fox about a possible merger, a plan which never came into fruition.

Through the s, studio output slowed considerably as Aubrey preferred four or five medium-budget pictures each year along with a smattering of low-budget fare.

However, MGM never reclaimed its former status. In , Kerkorian declared that MGM was now primarily a hotel company. In , Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc.

Kerkorian offered to purchase the remaining outstanding MGM shares he did not own to take the company private but was met with resistance.

Out of the 11 films he put into production, by the time of his release from the studio, only one film, Poltergeist , proved to be a clear hit.

Turner began broadcasting MGM films through his Turner Network Television , and caused a controversy when he began " colorizing " many black-and-white classics.

The well-respected executive, Alan Ladd Jr. A television production division was started up. In , MGM had a hit in Stargate.

Prior to that, MGM had held a home video license for of the films since spring In , MGM changed the way it distributed its products internationally.

It was not unexpected that Time Warner would bid, since the largest shareholder in the company was Ted Turner. In , MGM announced it would return as a theatrical distribution company.

MGM struck deals with The Weinstein Company , Lakeshore Entertainment , Bauer Martinez, and many other independent studios, and then announced its plans to release 14 feature films for and early MGM also hoped to increase the amount to over 20 by MGM also announced plans to restructure its worldwide television distribution operation.

A tentative agreement was signed in Seoul on March 15, , between MGM, South Korea-based entertainment agency Glovit and Busan city official for a theme park schedule to open in Over the next several years, MGM launched a number of initiatives in distribution and the use of new technology and media, as well as joint ventures to promote and sell its products.

The selected site was a 1. Whether MGM could avoid voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy had been a topic of much discussion in the film industry.

On August 17, , chief executive officer Harry E. Cooper as its new CEO, [8] [] [] a corporate executive who guided Enron through its post bankruptcy and oversaw the restructuring and growth of Krispy Kreme in MGM stated in February that the studio would likely be sold in the next four months, and that its latest film, Hot Tub Time Machine , might be one of the last four films to bear the MGM name.

However, some stated that the company might continue as a label for new James Bond productions, as well as other movie properties culled from the MGM library.

Six days later, MGM was finalizing a distribution deal with Sony Pictures Entertainment to handle distribution of its 4, films and DVDs worldwide and on digital platforms, including the two upcoming Bond films: There were four studios who were bidding on the Bond distribution rights: Paramount Pictures , Warner Bros.

Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures. Paramount was the first studio who dropped out of the Bond bidding. The deal was finalized on April 13, It will expire in June MGM moved forward with several upcoming projects, including remakes of RoboCop and Poltergeist , [] [] and released their first post-bankruptcy film Zookeeper , which was co-distributed by Columbia Pictures on July 8, MGM handles international television distribution rights for the new films as well as its library of existing titles and also retains its in-house production service.

On October 3, , Birnbaum announced his intention to exit his role as an MGM executive and return to "hands-on" producing. He will remain with the studio to produce films on "an exclusive basis".

In the Orion brand was revived as a TV production label for a syndicated court show. Orion Pictures name was extended in fourth quarter for smaller domestic and international video on demand and limited theatrical releases.

In March , MGM announced a multi-year distribution deal with Annapurna Pictures for some international markets and including home entertainment, theatrical and television rights.

The two studios also launched Mirror , a releasing entity for third-party films. However, this partnership will not be exclusive to all MGM films, as several of them will continue to be released through existing studio partners, such as Warner Bros.

It also does not include newly relaunched Orion Pictures , or the James Bond franchise which will now be distributed by Universal.

Since August 22, , its headquarters have been in Beverly Hills, California. MGM planned to house a private theater and a private outdoor patio in the building.

In MGM announced that it was moving its headquarters to a new building in Century City that was to be the first high-rise in Los Angeles to be completed in the 21st century.

Scott Johnson, the architect, designed the bottom third of the tower with extra-large floors so MGM executives could have outdoor decks.

One of three screening rooms placed in the tower was a seat theater on the ground floor later taken over by International Creative Management in December The 14th floor lobby housed the executive suites and a wall of Oscar statuettes for Academy Award -winning films.

Downsizing and relocating to a space that is still prominent but not overly ostentatious and burdened by expenses is fundamental for their survival.

Through its acquisitions of many different companies and film and television libraries, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer has greatly enhanced its film and television holdings.

As of , MGM owned the rights to 5, films. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see MGM disambiguation. The neutrality of this article is disputed.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met.

December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Marcus Loew Louis B. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.

Jackie received the nickname "Leo the Lucky". MGM began experiments with two-strip color short subjects in and animated cartoons in For these productions, two different lions were used.

The first lion, Telly, appeared on all color MGM movies between and The second lion, Coffee, appeared on color films between and and for the Happy Harmonies shorts , until production was switched to full three-strip Technicolor filming.

The Cat and the Fiddle had brief color sequences, but was otherwise in black-and-white including its opening credits , so it used Jackie instead of Coffee.

An extended version of the logo featuring Coffee appears at the beginning of the short Wild People , featuring the lion roaring three times, rather than just twice.

MGM began producing full three-strip Technicolor films in The Wizard of Oz had the Oz scenes in color, but it had the opening credits, closing credits, and the Kansas scenes in sepia-toned black-and-white, so it used Jackie instead of Tanner.

Third Dimensional Murder was shot in 3-D and in Technicolor, but it had the opening credits in black-and-white, so it also used Jackie instead of Tanner.

The Picture of Dorian Gray and The Secret Garden both had brief color sequences, but were otherwise in black-and-white including their opening credits , so they used Jackie instead of Tanner as well.

The Secret Garden , however, showed its The End title card and the cast list against a Technicolor background. Tanner roared three times in the logo; an extended version of this logo appeared on the Colortone and several early James A.

Fitzpatrick Traveltalks color shorts, with two additional roars from the lion. It is this version of the logo that was the most frequently used version throughout the Golden Age of Hollywood , although color did not really become the norm until the s and even then, many movies were still being made in black-and-white.

Tanner and Jackie were both kept in the change from Academy ratio films to widescreen CinemaScope movies in , with Tanner for color movies and Jackie for black-and-white films.

The logo was modified for this change; the marquee below the ribbon design was removed, and the company name was thus placed in a semi-circle above the ribbons.

The sixth lion, called George, [8] was introduced in , and appeared more heavily maned than any of the other lions. Two different versions featuring George were used; one with the lion roaring toward the right of the screen and then roaring at the camera, and another with the lion roaring toward the upright corner of the screen.

This logo would also appear on black-and-white movies. Leo was born in Dublin Zoo, Ireland, the same as Slats. He was also the youngest at the time MGM filmed him roaring hence his much smaller mane.

Leo was purchased from famous animal dealer Henry Trefflich , and trained by Ralph Helfer. In addition to being used as the MGM lion, Leo also appeared in other productions such as the religious epic King of Kings , Zebra in the Kitchen , Fluffy , and Napoleon and Samantha ; as well as a memorable TV commercial for Dreyfus Investments in Leo also made several appearances on the TV series The Pet Set , proving himself gentle enough to let a blind teenage girl pet him in one episode.

Two different versions of this logo were used: In the Chuck Jones -directed Tom and Jerry cartoons released between and , Tanner was used in the opening sequence instead of Leo.

This logo would also appear on black-and-white films, such as Jailhouse Rock and A Patch of Blue Some television prints of the film Cabin in the Sky , have replaced the Jackie logo with Leo for unknown reasons.

In , in attempt to update its image, MGM recruited Lippincott to create a more contemporary logo. Grand Prix , Afterwards, Leo was reinstated for the opening logo.

The Stylized Lion, however, was retained by the studio as its print logo, used by the MGM Records division studio advertising, in addition to being shown at the end of credit rolls following most MGM movie releases of this period, continuing until It was later used by the MGM Grand casinos.

The logo was retained in the corporate revamp following their acquisition of United Artists in The first film to use the new roar sound was Poltergeist Incidentally, the sound effect was also used for the "door ghost" near the end of the film.

From to , MGM used a variation of its main studio logo for its 60th anniversary based on the print logo, with the ribbons in a golden color.

Above the ribbons were the words "Diamond Jubilee", replacing the standard company name, and its font color was silver and below the ribboning was the phrase "Sixty Years of Great Entertainment".

The drama mask from the bottom had its surrounding laurels removed, and the mask itself was moved up a little so that an additional golden ribbon with the text reading "Entertainment Co.

Although the new roar effect done by Mangini was primarily being used at the time, The Year We Make Contact had both the original and roar effects mixed together.

When the company began using MGM and UA as separate brands in , a new logo for MGM was introduced; the same gold ribbons used for the "Diamond Jubilee" variant was retained, and the text was redone in exactly the same color.

This was done in order to give the roar more "muscle" which an MGM executive reportedly had found the iconic sound to be lacking beforehand , as well as fit it into films with 5.

The logo was revised again in , with the ribbons, text, and drama mask done in a more brilliant gold color. However, beginning with The Taking of Pelham , the roar was reused.

The newly-done logo debuted with the release of the James Bond film Quantum of Solace. In , Shine Studio was chosen to redesign and animate the logo in stereoscopic 3-D three-dimensional.

All the elements of the logo were re-built in 3-D and then placed on different planes to add dimensional layers and drama. The roar is reused once again as Leo roars and the company name is brought in from above to center the top screen, which completes the logo sequence.

This logo was first used in the film Skyfall.

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Audiences began drifting to television in the late s. MGM found it difficult to attract them to theaters. Word came from Nicholas Schenck in New York: Mayer thought he had found this savior in Dore Schary , a writer and producer who had found success at running RKO.

One bright spot was MGM musical pictures, under the aegis of producer Arthur Freed, who was operating what amounted to an independent unit within the studio.

Movie audiences more and more were staying home and watching television. In by coincidence, the year Mayer died , the studio lost money for the first time in its year history.

Initially Joseph Vogel became president and Sol Siegel head of production. By , MGM had released all of its contract players, with many either retiring or moving on to television.

Parade was canceled by ABC in the 2nd quarter of TV production was expect to start with the season and was to include half-hour remakes of or series based on its pictures.

Initial feature film sales focused on selling to the networks. In a landmark event, the film became the first American theatrical fiction film to be shown complete in one evening on prime time television over a major American commercial network.

Story of Michelangelo was telecast by ABC in , but that was a documentary. Beginning in , and lasting until , telecasts of The Wizard of Oz became an annual tradition, drawing huge audiences in homes all over the U.

The studio was all too happy to see Oz become, through television, one of the two or three most famous films MGM has ever made, and one of the few films that nearly everybody in the U.

Today The Wizard of Oz is regularly shown on the Turner -owned channels, no longer just once a year. Gigi was a box-office and critical success which won nine Academy Awards , including Best Picture.

In animation, MGM purchased the rights in to distribute a series of cartoons that starred a character named Flip the Frog , produced by Ub Iwerks.

The first cartoon in this series entitled Fiddlesticks was the first sound cartoon to be produced in two-color Technicolor. In , Ub Iwerks cancelled the unsuccessful Flip the Frog series and MGM began to distribute its second series of cartoons, starring a character named Willie Whopper , that was also produced by Ub Iwerks.

The Tom and Jerry cartoons won seven Academy Awards between and In , Tex Avery , another Schlesinger alumnus, joined the animation department.

Avery left the studio in , leaving Hanna and Barbera to focus on the popular Tom and Jerry and Droopy series.

In , MGM enjoyed what is quite probably its greatest financial success of later years, with the release of its nearly four-hour Technicolor epic Ben—Hur , a remake of its silent film hit, loosely based on the novel by General Lew Wallace.

Starring Charlton Heston in the title role, the film was critically acclaimed, and won 11 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, a record that held until Titanic matched it in and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King in Tom and Jerry folded in , and the animation department continued with television specials and one feature film, The Phantom Tollbooth.

During this period, MGM fell into a habit that would eventually sink the studio: However, four succeeding big-budget epics — like Ben—Hur , each a remake — failed: The Cinerama film The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm , the first film in Cinerama to actually tell a story, was also a flop.

King of Kings , while a commercial and critical flop at the time, has since come to be regarded as a film classic. The losses caused by these films led to the resignations of Sol Siegel and Joseph Vogel who were replaced by Robert M.

A Space Odyssey In the mids, MGM began to diversify by investing in real estate. As for film-making, that part of the company was quickly and severely downsized under the supervision of James T.

In , it was announced that MGM was in talks with 20th Century Fox about a possible merger, a plan which never came into fruition.

Through the s, studio output slowed considerably as Aubrey preferred four or five medium-budget pictures each year along with a smattering of low-budget fare.

However, MGM never reclaimed its former status. In , Kerkorian declared that MGM was now primarily a hotel company. In , Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc.

Kerkorian offered to purchase the remaining outstanding MGM shares he did not own to take the company private but was met with resistance. Out of the 11 films he put into production, by the time of his release from the studio, only one film, Poltergeist , proved to be a clear hit.

Turner began broadcasting MGM films through his Turner Network Television , and caused a controversy when he began " colorizing " many black-and-white classics.

The well-respected executive, Alan Ladd Jr. A television production division was started up. In , MGM had a hit in Stargate. Prior to that, MGM had held a home video license for of the films since spring In , MGM changed the way it distributed its products internationally.

It was not unexpected that Time Warner would bid, since the largest shareholder in the company was Ted Turner.

In , MGM announced it would return as a theatrical distribution company. MGM struck deals with The Weinstein Company , Lakeshore Entertainment , Bauer Martinez, and many other independent studios, and then announced its plans to release 14 feature films for and early MGM also hoped to increase the amount to over 20 by MGM also announced plans to restructure its worldwide television distribution operation.

A tentative agreement was signed in Seoul on March 15, , between MGM, South Korea-based entertainment agency Glovit and Busan city official for a theme park schedule to open in Over the next several years, MGM launched a number of initiatives in distribution and the use of new technology and media, as well as joint ventures to promote and sell its products.

The selected site was a 1. Whether MGM could avoid voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy had been a topic of much discussion in the film industry. On August 17, , chief executive officer Harry E.

Cooper as its new CEO, [8] [] [] a corporate executive who guided Enron through its post bankruptcy and oversaw the restructuring and growth of Krispy Kreme in MGM stated in February that the studio would likely be sold in the next four months, and that its latest film, Hot Tub Time Machine , might be one of the last four films to bear the MGM name.

However, some stated that the company might continue as a label for new James Bond productions, as well as other movie properties culled from the MGM library.

Six days later, MGM was finalizing a distribution deal with Sony Pictures Entertainment to handle distribution of its 4, films and DVDs worldwide and on digital platforms, including the two upcoming Bond films: There were four studios who were bidding on the Bond distribution rights: Paramount Pictures , Warner Bros.

Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures. Paramount was the first studio who dropped out of the Bond bidding. The deal was finalized on April 13, It will expire in June MGM moved forward with several upcoming projects, including remakes of RoboCop and Poltergeist , [] [] and released their first post-bankruptcy film Zookeeper , which was co-distributed by Columbia Pictures on July 8, MGM handles international television distribution rights for the new films as well as its library of existing titles and also retains its in-house production service.

On October 3, , Birnbaum announced his intention to exit his role as an MGM executive and return to "hands-on" producing. He will remain with the studio to produce films on "an exclusive basis".

In the Orion brand was revived as a TV production label for a syndicated court show. Orion Pictures name was extended in fourth quarter for smaller domestic and international video on demand and limited theatrical releases.

In March , MGM announced a multi-year distribution deal with Annapurna Pictures for some international markets and including home entertainment, theatrical and television rights.

The two studios also launched Mirror , a releasing entity for third-party films. However, this partnership will not be exclusive to all MGM films, as several of them will continue to be released through existing studio partners, such as Warner Bros.

It also does not include newly relaunched Orion Pictures , or the James Bond franchise which will now be distributed by Universal. Since August 22, , its headquarters have been in Beverly Hills, California.

MGM planned to house a private theater and a private outdoor patio in the building. In MGM announced that it was moving its headquarters to a new building in Century City that was to be the first high-rise in Los Angeles to be completed in the 21st century.

Scott Johnson, the architect, designed the bottom third of the tower with extra-large floors so MGM executives could have outdoor decks.

One of three screening rooms placed in the tower was a seat theater on the ground floor later taken over by International Creative Management in December The 14th floor lobby housed the executive suites and a wall of Oscar statuettes for Academy Award -winning films.

Downsizing and relocating to a space that is still prominent but not overly ostentatious and burdened by expenses is fundamental for their survival.

Through its acquisitions of many different companies and film and television libraries, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer has greatly enhanced its film and television holdings.

As of , MGM owned the rights to 5, films. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see MGM disambiguation. The neutrality of this article is disputed.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Marcus Loew Louis B. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. This section has multiple issues.

Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The discussion page may contain suggestions. This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably.

Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings. This section possibly contains original research.

Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.

May Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer films. Greater Los Angeles portal Companies portal Film portal.

Retrieved December 20, Retrieved September 20, Retrieved September 14, The Life and Legend of Louis B. The American film industry Revised ed.

University of Wisconsin Press. Archived from the original on April 24, Retrieved August 6, Retrieved July 20, Retrieved January 5, Retrieved February 22, Retrieved February 23, Retrieved August 10, The Coming of Sound.

Hollywood Cinema 2nd ed. The New American Cinema 3rd ed. American Cinema in the Shadow of Watergate and Vietnam, — A New Pot of Gold: Hollywood Under the Electronic Rainbow, — Old Tappan, New Jersey: The New York Times.

Retrieved February 13, Retrieved 31 January When the Lion Roars. A History of the Hal Roach Studios. Retrieved January 8, Chapman University Historical Review.

Retrieved May 12, The Making of the Wizard of Oz. Billboard Books, , The Lost Poems of Dorothy Parker 1st ed. He would later make a comeback at the beginning of the film Hearts of the West In the early 30s, MGM reissued some of its earlier, pre silent films with prerecorded music soundtracks and sounds ; such films included Greed , Ben-Hur and Flesh and the Devil For these sound reissues, the original Slats logo was replaced with Jackie, causing many film authorities to assume that the Jackie logo had been in use before In addition to appearing in the MGM logo, Jackie appeared in over a hundred films, including the Tarzan movies that starred Johnny Weissmuller.

Jackie also appeared with an apprehensive Greta Garbo in a well-known publicity still. The lion is also known for surviving several accidents, including two train wrecks, an earthquake, and an explosion in the studio.

In the most famous case, a pilot had to crash-land his plane, and left Jackie stranded in the Arizona wilderness for four days with some water and sandwiches [7].

Jackie received the nickname "Leo the Lucky". MGM began experiments with two-strip color short subjects in and animated cartoons in For these productions, two different lions were used.

The first lion, Telly, appeared on all color MGM movies between and The second lion, Coffee, appeared on color films between and and for the Happy Harmonies shorts , until production was switched to full three-strip Technicolor filming.

The Cat and the Fiddle had brief color sequences, but was otherwise in black-and-white including its opening credits , so it used Jackie instead of Coffee.

An extended version of the logo featuring Coffee appears at the beginning of the short Wild People , featuring the lion roaring three times, rather than just twice.

MGM began producing full three-strip Technicolor films in The Wizard of Oz had the Oz scenes in color, but it had the opening credits, closing credits, and the Kansas scenes in sepia-toned black-and-white, so it used Jackie instead of Tanner.

Third Dimensional Murder was shot in 3-D and in Technicolor, but it had the opening credits in black-and-white, so it also used Jackie instead of Tanner.

The Picture of Dorian Gray and The Secret Garden both had brief color sequences, but were otherwise in black-and-white including their opening credits , so they used Jackie instead of Tanner as well.

The Secret Garden , however, showed its The End title card and the cast list against a Technicolor background.

Tanner roared three times in the logo; an extended version of this logo appeared on the Colortone and several early James A. Fitzpatrick Traveltalks color shorts, with two additional roars from the lion.

It is this version of the logo that was the most frequently used version throughout the Golden Age of Hollywood , although color did not really become the norm until the s and even then, many movies were still being made in black-and-white.

Tanner and Jackie were both kept in the change from Academy ratio films to widescreen CinemaScope movies in , with Tanner for color movies and Jackie for black-and-white films.

The logo was modified for this change; the marquee below the ribbon design was removed, and the company name was thus placed in a semi-circle above the ribbons.

The sixth lion, called George, [8] was introduced in , and appeared more heavily maned than any of the other lions. Two different versions featuring George were used; one with the lion roaring toward the right of the screen and then roaring at the camera, and another with the lion roaring toward the upright corner of the screen.

This logo would also appear on black-and-white movies. Leo was born in Dublin Zoo, Ireland, the same as Slats. He was also the youngest at the time MGM filmed him roaring hence his much smaller mane.

Leo was purchased from famous animal dealer Henry Trefflich , and trained by Ralph Helfer. In addition to being used as the MGM lion, Leo also appeared in other productions such as the religious epic King of Kings , Zebra in the Kitchen , Fluffy , and Napoleon and Samantha ; as well as a memorable TV commercial for Dreyfus Investments in Leo also made several appearances on the TV series The Pet Set , proving himself gentle enough to let a blind teenage girl pet him in one episode.

Two different versions of this logo were used: In the Chuck Jones -directed Tom and Jerry cartoons released between and , Tanner was used in the opening sequence instead of Leo.

This logo would also appear on black-and-white films, such as Jailhouse Rock and A Patch of Blue Some television prints of the film Cabin in the Sky , have replaced the Jackie logo with Leo for unknown reasons.

In , in attempt to update its image, MGM recruited Lippincott to create a more contemporary logo. Grand Prix , Afterwards, Leo was reinstated for the opening logo.

The Stylized Lion, however, was retained by the studio as its print logo, used by the MGM Records division studio advertising, in addition to being shown at the end of credit rolls following most MGM movie releases of this period, continuing until It was later used by the MGM Grand casinos.

The logo was retained in the corporate revamp following their acquisition of United Artists in The first film to use the new roar sound was Poltergeist Incidentally, the sound effect was also used for the "door ghost" near the end of the film.

From to , MGM used a variation of its main studio logo for its 60th anniversary based on the print logo, with the ribbons in a golden color.

Above the ribbons were the words "Diamond Jubilee", replacing the standard company name, and its font color was silver and below the ribboning was the phrase "Sixty Years of Great Entertainment".

The drama mask from the bottom had its surrounding laurels removed, and the mask itself was moved up a little so that an additional golden ribbon with the text reading "Entertainment Co.

Although the new roar effect done by Mangini was primarily being used at the time, The Year We Make Contact had both the original and roar effects mixed together.

When the company began using MGM and UA as separate brands in , a new logo for MGM was introduced; the same gold ribbons used for the "Diamond Jubilee" variant was retained, and the text was redone in exactly the same color.

This was done in order to give the roar more "muscle" which an MGM executive reportedly had found the iconic sound to be lacking beforehand , as well as fit it into films with 5.

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