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Most Read Most Recent. Most mirrors are designed for visible light ; however, mirrors designed for other wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation are also used.

There are many types of glass mirrors, each representing a different manufacturing process and reflection type. An aluminium glass mirror is made of a float glass manufactured using vacuum coating , i.

A low aluminium glass mirror is manufactured by coating silver and two layers of protective paint on the back surface of glass.

A low aluminium glass mirror is very clear, light transmissive, smooth, and reflects accurate natural colors. This type of glass is widely used for framing presentations and exhibitions in which a precise color representation of the artwork is truly essential or when the background color of the frame is predominantly white.

A safety glass mirror is made by adhering a special protective film to the back surface of a silver glass mirror, which prevents injuries in case the mirror is broken.

This kind of mirror is used for furniture, doors, glass walls, commercial shelves, or public areas. A silkscreen printed glass mirror is produced using inorganic color ink that prints patterns through a special screen onto glass.

Various colors, patterns, and glass shapes are available. Such a glass mirror is durable and more moisture resistant than ordinary printed glass and can serve for over 20 years.

This type of glass is widely used for decorative purposes e. A silver glass mirror is an ordinary mirror, coated on its back surface with silver, which produces images by reflection.

This kind of glass mirror is produced by coating a silver, copper film and two or more layers of waterproof paint on the back surface of float glass, which perfectly resists acid and moisture.

A silver glass mirror provides clear and actual images, is quite durable, and is widely used for furniture, bathroom and other decorative purposes.

Decorative glass mirrors are usually handcrafted. A variety of shades, shapes and glass thickness are often available. A beam of light reflects off a mirror at an angle of reflection equal to its angle of incidence if the size of a mirror is much larger than the wavelength of light.

This law mathematically follows from the interference of a plane wave on a flat boundary of much larger size than the wavelength. Objects viewed in a plane mirror will appear laterally inverted e.

To be precise, it reverses the object in the direction perpendicular to the mirror surface the normal. Because left and right are defined relative to front-back and top-bottom, the "flipping" of front and back results in the perception of a left-right reversal in the image.

Looking at an image of oneself with the front-back axis flipped results in the perception of an image with its left-right axis flipped.

When reflected in the mirror, your right hand remains directly opposite your real right hand, but it is perceived as the left hand of your image.

When a person looks into a mirror, the image is actually front-back reversed, which is an effect similar to the hollow-mask illusion.

Notice that a mirror image is fundamentally different from the object and cannot be reproduced by simply rotating the object. For things that may be considered as two-dimensional objects like text , front-back reversal cannot usually explain the observed reversal.

In the same way that text on a piece of paper appears reversed if held up to a light and viewed from behind, text held facing a mirror will appear reversed, because the observer is behind the text.

Another way to understand the reversals observed in images of objects that are effectively two-dimensional is that the inversion of left and right in a mirror is due to the way human beings turn their bodies.

To turn from viewing the side of the object facing the mirror to view the reflection in the mirror requires the observer to look in the opposite direction.

To look in another direction, human beings turn their heads about a vertical axis. This causes a left-right reversal in the image but not an up-down reversal.

If a person instead turns by bending over and looking at the mirror image between their legs, up-down will appear reversed but not left-right.

This sort of reversal is simply a change relative to the observer and not a change intrinsic to the image itself, as with a three-dimensional object.

The first mirrors used by humans were most likely pools of dark, still water, or water collected in a primitive vessel of some sort.

The requirements for making a good mirror are a surface with a very high degree of flatness preferably but not necessarily with high reflectivity , and a surface roughness smaller than the wavelength of the light.

The earliest manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stone such as obsidian , a naturally occurring volcanic glass. Examples of obsidian mirrors found in Anatolia modern-day Turkey have been dated to around B.

Mirrors made of other metal mixtures alloys such as copper and tin speculum metal may have also been produced in China and India. Stone mirrors often had poor reflectivity compared to metals, yet metals scratch or tarnish easily, so they frequently needed polishing.

Depending upon the color, both often yielded reflections with poor color rendering. In her history of the mirror, Sabine Melchior-Bonnet draws significant attention to the relation of the mirror to Greek philosophy, specifically Socrates:.

If well used, however, the mirror can aid moral meditation between man and himself. Socrates, we are told by Diogenes , urged young people to look at themselves in mirrors so that, if they were beautiful, they would become worthy of their beauty, and if they were ugly, they would know how to hide their disgrace through learning.

The mirror, a tool by which to " know thyself ," invited man to not mistake himself for God, to avoid pride by knowing his limits, and to improve himself.

His was thus not a passive mirror of imitation but an active mirror of transformation. Glass was a desirable material for mirrors.

Because the surface of glass is naturally smooth, it produces reflections with very little blur. In addition, glass is very hard and scratch-resistant.

However, glass by itself has little reflectivity, so people began coating it with metals to increase the reflectivity. Metal-coated glass mirrors are said by the Roman scholar Pliny the Elder to have been invented in Sidon modern-day Lebanon in the first century A.

These ancient glass mirrors were very thin, thus very fragile, because the glass needed to be extremely thin to prevent cracking when coated with a hot, molten metal.

Due to the poor quality, high cost, and small size of these ancient glass mirrors, solid metal-mirrors primarily of steel were usually preferred until the late nineteenth century.

Parabolic mirrors were described and studied in classical antiquity by the mathematician Diocles in his work On Burning Mirrors.

In China, people began making mirrors by coating metallic objects with silver-mercury amalgams as early as A. This was accomplished by coating the mirror with the amalgam, and then heating it until the mercury boiled away, leaving only the silver behind.

The problems of making metal-coated, glass mirrors was due to the difficulties in making glass that was very clear, as most ancient glass was tinted green with iron.

This was overcome when people began mixing soda , limestone , potash , manganese , and fern ashes with the glass. There was also no way for the ancients to make flat panes of glass with uniform thicknesses.

The earliest methods for producing glass panes began in France, when people began blowing glass bubbles, and then spinning them rapidly to flatten them out into plates from which pieces could be cut.

However, these pieces were still not uniform in thickness, so produced distorted images as well. A better method was to blow a cylinder of glass, cut off the ends, slice it down the center, and unroll it onto a flat hearth.

This method produced the first mirror-quality glass panes, but it was very difficult and resulted in a lot of breakage. Even windows were primarily made of oiled paper or stained glass , until the mid-nineteenth century, due to the high cost of making clear, flat panes of glass.

The method of making flat panes of clear glass from blown cylinders began in Germany and evolved through the Middle Ages, until being perfected by the Venetians in the sixteenth century.

The Venetians began using lead glass for its crystal-clarity and its easier workability. Some time during the early Renaissance , European manufacturers perfected a superior method of coating glass with a tin-mercury amalgam, producing an amorphous coating with better reflectivity than crystalline metals and causing little thermal shock to the glass.

Glass mirrors from this period were extremely expensive luxuries. The invention of the silvered-glass mirror is credited to German chemist Justus von Liebig in This silvering process was adapted for mass manufacturing and led to the greater availability of affordable mirrors.

In the modern age, mirrors are often produced by the wet deposition of silver, or sometimes nickel or chromium the latter used most often in automotive mirrors via electroplating directly onto the glass substrate.

Vacuum deposition began with the study of the sputtering phenomenon during the s and s, which was a common problem in lighting in which metal ejected from the electrodes coated the glass, blocking output.

However, turning sputtering into a reliable method of coating a mirror did not occur until the invention of semiconductors in the s.

Evaporation coating was pioneered by John Strong in Aluminum was a desirable material for mirrors, but was too dangerous to apply with electroplating.

Strong used evaporation coating to make the first aluminum telescope mirrors in the s. In at the Schott Glass company, Walter Geffcken invented the first dielectric mirrors to use multilayer coatings stacks.

Mirrors are manufactured by applying a reflective coating to a suitable substrate. The reflective coating is typically applied to the back surface of the glass, so that the reflecting side of the coating is protected from corrosion and accidental damage by the glass on one side and the coating itself and optional paint for further protection on the other.

In classical antiquity, mirrors were made of solid metal bronze, later silver [33] and were too expensive for widespread use by common people; they were also prone to corrosion.

Due to the low reflectivity of polished metal, these mirrors also gave a darker image than modern ones, making them unsuitable for indoor use with the artificial lighting of the time candles or lanterns.

The method of making mirrors out of plate glass was invented by 13th-century Venetian glassmakers on the island of Murano , who covered the back of the glass with an amorphous coat of tin using a fire-gilding technique, obtaining near-perfect and undistorted reflection.

For over one hundred years, Venetian mirrors installed in richly decorated frames served as luxury decorations for palaces throughout Europe, but the secret of the mercury process eventually arrived in London and Paris during the 17th century, due to industrial espionage.

In modern times, the mirror substrate is shaped, polished and cleaned, and is then coated. Glass mirrors are most often coated with silver [34] or aluminium, [35] implemented by a series of coatings: The tin II chloride is applied because silver will not bond with the glass.

Copper is added for long-term durability. In some applications, generally those that are cost-sensitive or that require great durability, such as for mounting in a prison cell, mirrors may be made from a single, bulk material such as polished metal.

However, metals consist of small crystals grains separated by grain boundaries. Thus, crystalline metals do not reflect with perfect uniformity. Lacking any grain boundaries, the amorphous coatings have higher reflectivity than crystalline metals of the same type.

Electroplating must be performed by first coating the glass with carbon, to make the surface electrically conductive, thus the adhesion is often not as good as with wet-deposition.

Both lack the ability to produce perfectly uniform thicknesses with high precision. Therefore, these are called second-surface mirrors, which have the added benefit of high durability, because the glass substrate can protect the coating from damage.

For technical applications such as laser mirrors, the reflective coating is typically applied by vacuum deposition. Vacuum deposition provides an effective means of producing a very uniform coating, and controlling the thickness with high precision.

This eliminates refraction and double reflections, also called "ghost reflections" a weak reflection from the surface of the glass, and a stronger one from the reflecting metal , and reduces absorption of light by the mirror.

A hard, protective, transparent overcoat may be applied to prevent oxidation of the reflective layer and scratching of the soft metal.

Applications requiring higher reflectivity or greater durability, where wide bandwidth is not essential, use dielectric coatings , which can achieve reflectivities as high as Because the coatings are usually transparent, absorption losses are negligible.

Therefore, the thickness and material of the coatings can be adjusted to be centered on any wavelength. Vacuum deposition can be achieved in a number of ways, including sputtering, evaporation deposition, arc deposition, reactive-gas deposition, and ion plating, among many others.

Mirrors can be manufactured to a wide range of engineering tolerances , including reflectivity , surface quality, surface roughness , or transmissivity , depending on the desired application.

These tolerances can range from low, such as found in a normal household-mirror, to extremely high, like those used in lasers or telescopes.

Increasing the tolerances allows better and more precise imaging or beam transmission over longer distances. In imaging systems this can help reduce anomalies artifacts , distortion or blur, but at a much higher cost.

Where viewing distances are relatively close or high precision is not a concern, lower tolerances can be used to make effective mirrors at affordable costs.

The reflectivity of a mirror is determined by the percentage of reflected light per the total of the incident light. The reflectivity may vary with wavelength.

All or a portion of the light not reflected is absorbed by the mirror, while in some cases a portion may also transmit through.

Although some small portion of the light will be absorbed by the coating, the reflectivity is usually higher for first-surface mirrors, eliminating both reflection and absorption losses from the substrate.

The reflectivity is often determined by the type and thickness of the coating. When the thickness of the coating is sufficient to prevent transmission, all of the losses occur due to absorption.

Gold is very soft and easily scratched, costly, yet does not tarnish. Silver is expensive, soft, and quickly tarnishes, but has the highest reflectivity in the visual to near-infrared of any metal.

Dielectric mirrors can reflect greater than However, dielectric coatings can also enhance the reflectivity of metallic coatings and protect them from scratching or tarnishing.

Dielectric materials are typically very hard and relatively cheap, however the number of coats needed generally makes it an expensive process.

In mirrors with low tolerances, the coating thickness may be reduced to save cost, and simply covered with paint to absorb transmission.

Surface quality, or surface accuracy, measures the deviations from a perfect, ideal surface shape. Increasing the surface quality reduces distortion, artifacts, and aberration in images, and helps increase coherence , collimation , and reduce unwanted divergence in beams.

For plane mirrors, this is often described in terms of flatness , while other surface shapes are compared to an ideal shape. These deviations can be much larger or much smaller than the surface roughness.

Surface roughness describes the texture of the surface, often in terms of the depth of the microscopic scratches left by the polishing operations.

Surface roughness determines how much of the reflection is specular and how much diffuses, controlling how sharp or blurry the image will be.

For perfectly specular reflection, the surface roughness must be kept smaller than the wavelength of the light. For wavelengths that are approaching or are even shorter than the diameter of the atoms , such as X-rays , specular reflection can only be produced by surfaces that are at a grazing incidence from the rays.

Transmissivity is determined by the percentage of light transmitted per the incident light. Transmissivity is usually the same from both first and second surfaces.

The combined transmitted and reflected light, subtracted from the incident light, measures the amount absorbed by both the coating and substrate.

For transmissive mirrors, such as one-way mirrors, beam splitters , or laser output couplers , the transmissivity of the mirror is an important consideration.

The transmissivity of metallic coatings are often determined by their thickness. For precision beam-splitters or output couplers, the thickness of the coating must be kept at very high tolerances to transmit the proper amount of light.

For dielectric mirrors, the thickness of the coat must always be kept to high tolerances, but it is often more the number of individual coats that determine the transmissivity.

For the substrate, the material used must also have good transmissivity to the chosen wavelengths. Glass is a suitable substrate for most visible-light applications, but other substrates such as zinc selenide or synthetic sapphire may be used for infrared or ultraviolet wavelengths.

Mirrors are commonly used as aids to personal grooming. A classic example of the latter is the cheval glass , which may be tilted. With the sun as light source, a mirror can be used to signal by variations in the orientation of the mirror.

This technique was used by Native American tribes and numerous militaries to transmit information between distant outposts.

Mirrors can also be used for search to attract the attention of search and rescue helicopters. Specialized type of mirrors are available and are often included in military survival kits.

Microscopic mirrors are a core element of many of the largest high-definition televisions and video projectors.

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